An FBI spokesman had no immediate comment. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http: You are what you tweet: Methods Overview This was a longitudinal observational study that took place during the fall semester of Overall these factors may limit the ability to generalize our findings. Furthermore, the tweets in this study were manually categorized into 4 types of emotions.
Sentiment and Emotional Analysis of the Tweets A total of tweets were included in our analysis. It may be possible that participants may change their Web-based behavior when they know they are part of the study ie, Hawthorne effect. Conclusions The ability to use real-time social media data to provide health surveillance has a significant public health application. The tweets were first coded as expressing positive, negative, and neutral sentiments. Ambiguous tweets that could not be understood were labeled as unknown. Methods of using real-time social media technologies for detection and remote monitoring of HIV outcomes. Minority-status stresses and the college adjustment of ethnic minority freshmen.
University of California Los Angeles; Descriptive statistics were used to summarize twitter demographic characteristics, levels of stress, emotional well-being, and the number of positive, neutral, negative, anger, fear, love, and happiness tweets. Although not all stress is negative, a certain level of stress can be beneficial to help improve performance.
Due to the small number of participants who scored either 1 extremely low or 5 extremely high on the Likert scales for weekly levels of stress and emotional well-being, it is common to combine the cells [ 24 ].
Table 1 Baseline characteristics. Open in a separate window. A greater level of fear was positively associated with the percentage of negative sentiments, particularly a greater proportion of tweets containing the emotion of fear. Feasibility of using social networking technologies for health research among men who have sex with men: Although not all stress is homewkrk, a certain level of stress can be beneficial to help improve performance.
The relation of depression and anxiety to life-stress and achievement in students. The best-fitting model for predicting weekly emotions of happiness was using tweets related to the emotions zmedley fear —2 log likelihood Retweets were excluded from the analysis, as it was a challenge to interpret the sentiment and emotions.
Social media use, such as Twitter and Facebook, has been rapidly growing, and research has already shown that data from these technologies can be used for novel approaches to public health surveillance [ 12 – 15 ]. Social media use, such as Twitter and Facebook, has been rapidly growing, and research has already shown that data from these technologies can be used for novel approaches to public health surveillance [ 12 – 15 ].
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A greater level of anger was negatively associated with the percentage of positive sentiment and tweets related to the emotions of happiness. J Furth High Educ.
University of California Los Angeles; . Previous research has identified basic human emotions, which included feelings of anger, fear, love, and happiness [ 2021 ].
Methods Overview This was a longitudinal observational study that took place during the fall semester of Participants were informed about the study through flyers on social media websites and on UCLA campus between September 14 and October 12, For example, 1 emotion of love also included emotions of affection, kindness, passion, and longing; 2 emotion of happiness also included emotions of joy, cheerfulness, and excitement; 3 emotion of anger also included emotions of disgust, torment, and judgment; 4 emotion of fear also included emotions of nervousness, stress, and sadness.
Stress Level and Emotional State The distribution of stress level and emotional state is displayed in Table 2. Curr Dir Psychol Sci.
Stress and the higher education student: Open in a separate window. Social Media Update Furthermore, the tweets in this study were manually categorized into 4 types of emotions. This was a longitudinal observational study that took place during the fall semester of Making the grade but feeling distressed: Interactions between sleep, stress, and metabolism: Because of the high level of stress among incoming freshman students, we decided to study this population in their first quarter of school.
Future studies can build on the methods used in this study to further refine the ways of utilizing real-time social media data for monitoring the levels of stress and emotional well-being.
However, too much stress can adversely affect health [ 2 ]. Handbook of cognition and emotion.
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Twittsr the event of conflicting opinions, resolution was achieved by consensus. A limitation of this study was limited sample size and that only freshman college students were included. Age and gender as determinants of stress exposure, generation, and reactions in youngsters: