It contained so many unexpected, new concepts that Weierstrass withdrew his paper and in fact published no more. His contributions to complex analysis include most notably the introduction of Riemann surfaces , breaking new ground in a natural, geometric treatment of complex analysis. In , Gauss asked his student Riemann to prepare a Habilitationsschrift on the foundations of geometry. It is difficult to recall another example in the history of nineteenth-century mathematics when a struggle for a rigorous proof led to such productive results. In , at the age of 19, he started studying philology and Christian theology in order to become a pastor and help with his family’s finances. Riemann’s letters to his dearly-loved father were full of recollections about the difficulties he encountered.

Click on this link to see a list of the Glossary entries for this page. Riemann used theta functions in several variables and reduced the problem to the determination of the zeros of these theta functions. Dedekind writes in [3]: Through the work of David Hilbert in the Calculus of Variations, the Dirichlet principle was finally established. He showed a particular interest in mathematics and the director of the Gymnasium allowed Bernhard to study mathematics texts from his own library. Riemann also investigated period matrices and characterized them through the “Riemannian period relations” symmetric, real part negative. Riemann’s tombstone in Biganzolo Italy refers to Romans 8:

The subject founded by this work is Riemannian geometry. His famous paper on the prime-counting functioncontaining the original statement of the Riemann hypothesisis regarded as one of the most influential papers in analytic number theory.

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann

Kleinhowever, was fascinated by Riemann’s geometric approach and he wrote a book in giving his version of Riemann’s work yet written very much in the spirit of Riemann. Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann German: The famous Riemann mapping theorem says that a simply connected domain in the complex plane is “biholomorphically equivalent” i.


In fact the main point of this part of Riemann’s lecture was the definition of the curvature tensor. This area of mathematics is part of the foundation of topology and is still being applied in novel ways to mathematical physics.

In the second part of the dissertation he examined the problem which he described in these words: For the proof of the existence of functions on Riemann surfaces he used a minimality condition, which he called the Dirichlet principle. For example, the Riemann—Roch theorem Roch was a student of Riemann says something about the number of linearly independent differentials with known conditions on the zeros and poles of a Riemann surface.

Bernhard Riemann – Wikipedia

Monastyrsky writes in [6]: The proof of the existence of such differential equations by previously known monodromy matrices is one of the Hilbert thesks. During his life, he held closely to his Christian faith and considered it to be the most important aspect of his life.

The fundamental object is called the Riemann curvature tensor. However, Riemann’s thesis is a riemanj original piece of work which examined geometric properties of analytic functions, conformal mappings and the connectivity of surfaces.

This had the effect of making people doubt Riemann’s methods. Many mathematicians such as Alfred Clebsch furthered Riemann’s work on algebraic curves. It was only published twelve years later in by Dedekind, two years after his death.

riemann habilitation thesis

In proving some of the results in his thesis Riemann used a variational principle which he was later to call the Dirichlet Principle since he fiemann learnt it from Dirichlet ‘s lectures in Berlin. This gave Riemann particular pleasure and perhaps Betti in particular profited from his contacts with Riemann.


Inat the age of 19, he started studying philology and Christian theology in order to become a pastor and help with his family’s finances. Fellow of the Habilitayion Society.

riemann habilitation thesis

He examined multi-valued functions as single valued over a special Riemann surface and solved general inversion problems which had been solved for elliptic integrals by Abel and Jacobi. A few days later he was elected to the Berlin Academy of Sciences. The main person to influence Riemann at this time, however, was Dirichlet. In [16] two letter from Bettishowing the topological ideas that he learnt from Riemann, are reproduced.

Bernhard Riemann ()

While preceding papers have shown that if a function possesses such and such a property, then it can be represented by a Fourier serieswe pose the reverse question: The Riemann hypothesis was one of a series of conjectures he made about the function’s properties. One of the three was Dedekind who was habiliitation to make the beauty of Riemann’s lectures available by publishing the material after Riemann’s early death.

riemann habilitation thesis

When Riemann’s work appeared, Weierstrass withdrew his paper from Crelle’s Journal and did not publish it. This page was last edited on 13 Mayat Mathematicians born in the same country.

In high school, Riemann studied the Bible intensively, but he was often distracted by mathematics. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Friedrich Riemann acted as teacher to his children and he taught Bernhard until he was ten years old.

However it was not only Habilitatipn who strongly influenced Riemann at this time.